Monday, February 29, 2016

Alexander's Empire

Empire Building:
 - Alexander the Great conquered Persia and Egypt and extended his empire to the Indus River in northwest India.

Setting the stage:
 - the Peloponnesian War weakened several Greek city-state and cause decline in their military and economic power.

Philip Builds Macedonian Power
The kingdom of Macedonia, located just north of Greece, had rough terrain and a cold climate. Most Macedonian nobles thought of themselves as Greeks, but the Greeks looked down on the Macedonians as uncivilized foreigner who had no great philosophers, sculptors, or writers. The Macedonians did have one very important resource - their shrewd and fearless kings.
 - Philip's Army
    - in 359 B.C., Philip 2 became king of Macedonia. Though he was only 23 years old he quickly proved to be a brilliant general and a ruthless politician.
    - he transformed the rugged peasants into a well-trained professional army.
    - organized phalanxes of 16 men across and 16 deep, with 18-foot pike.
    - Philip began to prepare an invasion of Greece.
 - Conquest of Greece
    - Demosthenes, the Athenian orator , tried to warn the Greeks about the Philip, he urged them to unite against Philip
    - 338 B.C, Athens and Thebes joined forces to fight Philip, but it was too late
    - Macedonians soundly defeated the Greeks at Chaeronea and ended Greek independence.
    - city-state retained self-government in local affairs, under control of Philip's Macedonia
    - Philip planned to invade Persia next but never got the chance
    - at his daughter's wedding he was killed by a former guardsman
    - Philip's son Alexander proclaimed himself king of Macedonia. Over the next 13 years, he became known as Alexander the Great.

Alexander Defeats Persia:
Although Alexander was only 20 when he became king, he was well prepared to lead. Under Aristotle's teaching Alexander learned science, geography, and literature. He enjoyed Homer's description about the Trojan War. He kept a copy of the LLIAD under his pillow to inspired himself.
When the people of Thebes rebelled he destroyed the city, about 6,000 Thebans were killed so other Greek city-state quickly gave up any idea of rebellion.
 - Invasion of Persia
    - 334 B.C., Alexander led 35,000 soldiers across the Hellespont into Anatolia. Alexander smashed the Persian defenses.
    - the victory of Alexander alarmed Darius 3 - the Persian King
    - Darius 3 raised 50,000 and 75,000 men
    - this victory gave Alexander control over Anatoli
 - Conquering the Persian Empire
    - Darius tried to negotiate a peace settlement. He offered Alexander all of his west lands but Alexander wanted the entire Persian Empire.
    - Alexander marched into Egypt in 332 B.C.
    - the two armies met at Gaugamela, Alexander's victory ended Persia's power
    - Persepolis, Persia's royal capital burned to the ground.

Alexander's Other Conquests
Alexander now reigned as the unchallenged ruler of southwest Asia. He left the ruined Persepolis to pursue Darius and conquer Persia's remote Asian provinces. During the next three years, his army  fought its way across the desert wastes and mountains of Central Asia.
 - Alexander in India
    - 326 B.C., Alexander and his army reached Indus Valley.
    - a powerful India army blocked their path, they had been fighting for 11 years and had marched more than 11,000 miles. The exhausted soldiers yearned to go home. Bitterly disappointed, Alexander agreed to turn back.
    - 323 B.C., Alexander and his army had reached Babylon. He became seriously ill with a fever and died a few days later and he was just 32.
 - Alexander's Legacy
    - after his died, his Macedonian generals fought among themselves for control of his empire.
    - Antigonus became king of Macedonia and took control of the Greek city-state; Ptolemy seized Egypt, took the title of pharaoh, and established a dynasty; Seleucus took most of the old Persian Empire.
    - alexander himself adopted Persian dress and customs and married a Persian woman
    - a vibrant new culture emerged from the blend of Greek and Eastern customs.

Thursday, February 25, 2016

Greek Art, Government and Architecture

 - Sculptures
 - Pottery
 - Mosaic Art - make of small piece of something
 - Architecture
 - metal
 - Renaissance

 - democracy Strengthened
   - get paid
   - middle or lower class citizens involve in government
 - Athenian
   - Citizens male 18
   - Executive branch

 - oldest was from 500 BCE
 - temple
 - theatre
 - 3 type of column
   - Doric Columns: most simple
   - Ionic Column: thinnest, smallest
   -  Corinthian Column: most omate
- Parthenon
   - master piece
   - 447 BC
   - honor athena
 - Nike of Samothrace
   - honor see battle and the Goddess Nike
   - 8ft high
   - winged victory Samothrace
 - Acropolis
   - protect Athens
   - on hill

Tuesday, February 23, 2016

Pericles and The Delian League

Pericles: (477-441 BC)
 - He ruled in the golden age of Athens
 - big leader

(461-429 BCE)
 - Pericles dominated during this period
 - often called the age of Pericles
 - 3 goals
  - Strengthen Athenian democracy
  - Hold on strengthen the enemies
  - Glorify Athens

Stronger Democracy
 - He increased the number of public
 - The poorest people can involve

Start of Direct Democracy
 - Direct Democracy: a from of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives
 - important legacy of the age of 

Glorifying Athens
 - 15 years to build Parthenon

 - Aspasia is having a affair with Pericles
 - First sign as men treat women equally

Peloponnesian War
 - Sparta and Athens
 - The strategy worked well for Athens but the plague hit the Athens
 - Hubris - over confident

The Delian League
 - Delian League is organized after the was
 - to make a truce and keep all the city-states together
 - United Nation is pretty close to the Delian League
 - Athens control the Delian League gathered city-states use their money to build things
 - during the age of Pericles

Monday, February 22, 2016


- Costumes and Masks
The actors were so far away from the audience that without the aid of exaggerated costumes and masks, they would be difficult to see

The masks were made of linen or cork, so none have survived. Tragic masks carried mournful or pained expressions, while comic masks were smiling or leering. The shape of the mask amplified the actor's voice, making his words easier for the audience to hear

- Comedy
A comedy contained scenes filled with slapstick situations and crude humorIt is an entertainment consisting of jokes and satire, intended to make audience laugh.Playwrights often made fun of politics and respected people and ideas of the time.

- Dramatists

- Aristophanes
- wrote the first great comedies including The Birds and Lysistrata
- Lysistrata portrayed the women of Athens forcing their husbands to end the Peloponnesian War

- Menander
- wrote more than a hundred comedies.

- Aspis ("The Shield"; about half) is one of his famous works.

Sunday, February 21, 2016

Greek Theatre

Greek Theatre:
- The buildings were called a theatron.
- three main element
   - the orchestra
      - a large circular or rectangular area at the center part of the theatre, where the play, dance, religious rites, acting used to take place.
   - the skene
      - a large rectangular building situated behind the orchestra, used as a backstage. Actors could change their costumes and masks. Rising from the circle of the orchestra was the audience.
   - the audience.
      - the cast of a Greek play in the Dionysia was comprised of amateur, not professionals (all male).

Thursday, February 18, 2016

Democracy and Greece's Golden Age

Culture Interaction:
 - Democratic principles and classical culture flourished during Greece's golden age.

Setting the stage
 - 477 - 431 B.C.
 - Athens experience a growth in intellectual and artistic learning.
 - the Golden Age of Athens.

Pericles Plan for Athens
Pericles led Athens during much of its golden age. From 461-429 B.C. is called the Age of Pericles. He had three goals: 1. to strengthen Athenian democracy, 2. to hold and strengthen the empire, 3. to glorify Athens.
 - Stronger Democracy
  - Pericles increased the number of public officials who were paid salaries. So Athens had more citizens engaging in self-government than any other city-state in Greece, this reform made Athens one of the most democracy government in history.
  - Direct democracy is a form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives.
 - Athenian Empire
  - after the defeat of the Persians, Athens helped organized the Delian League. They use the money to make Athenian navy the strongest in the Mediterranean. Strong navy was important because it helped Athens strengthen the safety of its empire.
 - Glorifying Athens
  - Pericles also used the money to beautify Athens.

Glorious Art and Architecture
Pericles' goal was to have the greatest Greek artists and architects create magnificent sculptures and buildings to glorify Athens. One of architecture's novelist works - the Parthenon
 - Architecture and Sculpture
  - the Parthenon, a masterpiece of architectural design and craftsmanship, was not unique in style.Phidias crafted a giant statue of Athena that only contained such precious materials as gold and ivory, but also stood over 30 feet tall.
  - They wanted to portray ideal beauty, not realism. Their values of harmony, order, balance, and proportion became the standard of what is called classical art.

Drama and History
The Greeks invented drama as an art form and built the first theaters in the West.
 - Tragedy and Comedy
  - They wrote two kinds of drama - tragedy and comedy. A tragedy was a serious drama about common themes such as love, hate, war, or betrayal. They have a main character, or tragic hero.
  - Aeschylus wrote more than 80 plays. Sophocles wrote more than 100 plays, Euripides, author of the play Medea, often featured strong women in his works.
  - a comedy contained scenes filled with slapstick situations and crude humor. Play wrights often made fun of politics and respected people and ideas of the time.
 - History
  - Herodotus, a Greek who lived in Athens for a time, pioneered the accurate reporting of events. He wrote the first book of history.

Friday, February 12, 2016

Class Notes (Feb 11th)

A new form of government
 - citizens could participate (1/5 of Athenians were citizens free adult male property owners born in Athens)
 - after several years Athens practiced
  - state is ruled by citizens
  - rule is based on citizenship
  - in the agora, citizens argued, made speeches, votes (yes-white stone, no-black stone)
  - two most powerful: Spartan, Athens
  - Persian War, Persian Empire vs. Greece

Wednesday, February 10, 2016

Cyber Day - Deconstructing History: The Acropolis

  • What is the Greek Acropolis?
  • Athens
  • What was the Acropolis used for?
  • Ancient Athenians would come here to pray, or for protection in times of invasion
  • When and why was the Parthenon built?
  • most famous surviving building of Ancient Greece, was built over 2500 years ago as a temple to the Goddess Athena
  • Who ordered the Parthenon to be built?
  • the Athenians believed she helped the Greeks defeat the Persian Empire, Pericles, a famous Greek politician ordered the  construction
  • When was the Parthenon constructed?
  • started in 447 B.C.
  • What is the Parthenon made of?
  • made of 30,000 tons of the finest white marble
  • What do we mean by “Doric-style” construction?
  • the Parthenon is considered to be the finest example of Doric-style construction, simple, unadorned style, characterized by simple columns
  • What can be found inside the Parthenon?
  • 40 foot statue of Athena
  • When was the Parthenon damaged, and by whom?
  • was severly damaged in 1687 when the Venetians attacked Athens.

Monday, February 8, 2016

Class Notes (Feb 5th)

Philosopher lapalooza - Socrates
 - looked to science and logic (not the mythological gods) for explanation of how the world worked
 - the Socratic Method fostered critical thinking
 - people go there to communicate not just for many, connect people from other place together
    - "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make you think."
                                                                                          - Socrates
 - " the unexamined life is not worth living.:
 - Socrates was changed with serious crimes
    - impiety (disrespecting the Gods)
 - did not deny what he had done; asked for free dinners
 - found guilty by an Athenian jury dead  by drinking hemlock.

 - corrupting the youth of Athens
 - at his trial, he described himself as a stinging god fly, and Athens as a lazy old horse
 - did not deny what he had done; asked for free dinners
 - found guilty by an Athenian jury, dead by drinking hemlock

Plato carries on
 - Plato was a student and follower of Socrate
 - he wrote out Socrate's teachings, and described his trial - Apology: exp;nation
 - Republic was Socrates' discussion of justice and the ideal state-one of the most influential books on philosophy ever written

Aristotle - so ambitious
 - Aristotle was a student of Plato
 - he helped foster the idea of Athens as an intellectual destination
 - his school - the Lyceum - focused on cooperative reserve - building on knowledge gathered from all over the world

Did Aristotle invent the Internet?
 - not exactly, but he did dream of having the sum of mankind's knowledge easily accessedinoue location
 - he wrote extensively on these topics:
    - logic-physics-biology
    - motion-theatre- poetry
    - ethics-politics-rhetoric
    - metaphysic-psychology-dreams
 - he also tutored Alexander the Great

Warring City-States Section Assessment

3. aristocracy: a government ruled by a small group of noble, landowning families.
    oligarchy: a government ruled by a few powerful people.

4. Solon: no citizens should own another citizen, outlawed debt slavery, all citizens of all class could participate in the Athenian assembly, any citizen could bring charges against wrongdoing.
    Cleisthenes: organized citizens into ten groups based on where they lived rather than other wealth, increased the power of the assembly by allowing all citizens to submit laws for debate and passage, Council member were chosen by lot, or at random.

6. Athens builds a limited democracy and Sparta builds a military state, Spartan's men had to served into the army until 60, they do not arts, literature... Athennian's boys in the rich families go to school and also in athletic activities, when they get older they went to military school, girls were home schooled.

Saturday, February 6, 2016

Democracy and Greece's Golden Age (Questions)

- direct democracy: a form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives, was a very important legacy of Periclean.
- classic art: values of harmon, order, balance, and proportion became the standard of classic art.
- tragedy: was a serious drama about common themes such as love, hate, war or betrayal.
- comedy: contained scenes filled with slapstick situations and crude humor.
- Peloponnesian War: war between Athenians and Spartans.
- philosopher: "love of wisdom."
- Socrates: one critic of the Sophists.
- Plato: a student of Socrates.
- Aristotle: a philosopher, questioned the nature of the world and of human belief, thought and knowledge.

2. I think the first goal of Pericles-to strengthen Athenian democracy had the greatest impact because they have a direct democracy.

3. Pericles increased the number of public officials who were paid salaries. Even the poorest citizen could serve if elected or chosen by lot.

4. to avoid land battles with the Spartan army and wait for an opportunity to strike Sparta and its allies from the sea.

5. "corrupting the youth of Athens", "neglecting the city's gods"

6. the Athens got hubris so they lose the war.

7.  Yes, the Pericles used the money from the league's treasury to make the Athenian navy the strongest in the Mediterranean. A strong navy was important because it helped Athens strengthen the safety of its empire.

8. I think it can be a standard but sometime there might be special situations so I think if there is a standard but do not use it like the only thing that make sense.

9. the Parthenon-a masterpiece of architectural design and craftsmanship, not unique on style.

Thursday, February 4, 2016

Class Note (Feb 4th)

Clash of the tyrant
 - Hippias was a tyrant who ruled from 527 to 510 BCE
 - his brother was murdered, his rule became harsh
 - he was expelled from Athens (called being ostracized)
 - he began working with the Persian King Darius 1, helping them invade Marathon
 - with Hippies gone, Isagoras and Cleisthenes (both were aristocrats) engaged in a power struggle
 - Isagoras  had support from some follow aristocrats, plus from Sparta
 - Cleisthenes had support of the majority of Athenians

Isagoras wins
 - Isagoras became tyrant
 - he ostracize Cleisthenes
 - Cleithenes' supports - and the odinary Athenian citizens revolt against Isagoras' tyrant
 - they trap Isagoras on the acropolis for two days - on the third day he fled and was banished (508 BCE)

Cleisthenes and Democracy
 - Cleisthenes - definitely a member of the elite
 - very rich
 - insulated from the "hoi polli"
 - but...a crafty politician
 - he sae the value of the middle class citizens (talented, intelligence, energies)

The Fighting Spartans
 - Greeks were certainly a warlike people - especially the Spartans
 - Spartans were know for their tough, ruthless infantry: soldiers who fought on land
 - Spartans boys trained started when they were 7
 - REAL Spartans were really fearsome people

A naval power
 - Athens had a great infantry, too, but nothing could compare with their navy
 - most effective weapons was trireme
 - a technological marvol
 - fastest ship
 - rowed up to 170 people

The Phalanx
 - Close-rank, dense grouping of warriors
 - armed with long spears and interlocking shields
 - advance slowly toward the enemy until they broke through their ranks

Wednesday, February 3, 2016

Warring City-State 2

     - In 490B.C., a Persian fleet carried 25,000 men across the Aegean Sea and landed northeast of Athens on a plain called Marathon.

- Pheidippides Brings News
  - though the Athenians won the battle, their city now stood defenseless.
  - according to the tradition, army leader chose a young runner named Pheidippides to race back to Athens. He brought news of the Persians defeat so that Athenians would not give up the city without a fight. Pheidippides delivered this message, "Rejoice, we conquer." He then collapsed and died.
 - Thermopylae and Salamis
  - ten years later, in 480 B.C., Darius the Great's son and successor, Xerxes, assembled an enormous invasion force to crash Athens.
  - the Greek were badly divided.
  - some city-states agreed to fight the Persians; others thought it wiser to let Xerxes destroy Athens and return home; some Greeks even fought on the Persian side.
  - fearing defeat, the Spartans held the Persians back while the other Greek forces retreated.
  - the Spartans's valiant sacrifice - all were killed - made a great impression on all Greeks.
  - Themistocles, an Athenian leader, convinced them to evacuate the city and fight at sea.
  - they positioned their fleet in a narrow channel near the island of Salamis, a few miles southwest of Athens.
  - After setting fire block both ends of the channel.
  - the channel was very narrow, and the Persian ships had difficult tuning.
  - smaller Greek ships armed with battering rams attacked, puncturing the hulls of many Persian warships.
  - Xerxes faced another defeat in 479 B.C., Greeks crushed the Persian army at the Battle of Plataea.
  - several Greek city-states formed an alliance called Delian League.
  - they continued to press the war against the Persians for several more years.
  - they drove the Persians from the territories surrounding Greece and ended the threat of future attacks.

 - Consequences of the Persian War
  - during the 470s, Athens emerged as the leader of the Delian League, which had grown to some 200 city-states.

Warring City- State Class Note (Feb 3rd)

Transformation of government
 - during seventh and sixth centuries BCE, aristocrats ran the show in most of Greece
 - rich people wielded much more influence

Aristocracy (nice work if you can get it)
 - Aristocrats: members of he ruling class
 - They attended symposiums
 - meetings where the elite man enjoy wine and poetry

 - no women (except the "entertainment")
 - no middle class
 - certainly no slaves
 - sometimes, even certain aristocrats (who didn't have the right connection) were excluded

Tyrants seize control
 - sometimes aristocrats would form alliances with hoplites (well-armed soldiers), and set up an alternative form of gov't called a tyranny.
 - tyrant : someone who ruled outside the framework of the polis
 - modern meaning of tyrant: an abusive or oppressive ruler.
 - the Greek meaning of tyrant: someone who simply seized power (usually with hoplite help)

rules, codes and laws
 - Draco (621 BCE)
   - all Athenians (rich or poor) are equal under the law
   - but death is the punishment for many crimes
   - debt slavery is OK (work as a slave to repay debt)
 - Solon's reforms (594 BCE)
   - outlaws debt slavery
   - all Athenian citizens can speak at the assembly
   - any citizen can press charge against wrongdoers

 - more reform (around 500 BCE)
    - allow all citizens to submit laws for debt at assembly
    - created the Council of Five Hundred (members chosen at random to council the assembly)
    - but...only free adult male property owners born in Athens were considered citizens

Monday, February 1, 2016

Mycenaeans & Warring City-State Class note (Feb, 1st)

 - began around 2000 BCE
 - located on a rocky ridge on Peloponnesus projected by 20 foot thick wall
 - king dominate Greece from 1600-1100 BCE (controlled trade in region)
 - 1400 BCE invaded Crete and absorbed
 - Minoan culture (writing system, language, art, politics, literature, religion)

Trojan War
 - fought in 12th and 13th cent. BCE
 - part of Greek mythology -until the 19th cent.
 - Paris got an apple and the goddesses he gave the apple to is the most beautiful goddesses
 - Paris judge Aphrodite as "the fairest"
 - Aphrodite made Helen (who was married) fall in love with Paris, who took her back to Troy

"sea people" & Dorians
 - 1200 BCE the mysterious "sea people" began to invade Mycenae and burnt palace after palace
 - Dorians moved into this war-torn region, dominating 1150-750 BCE
  - Dorians were far less advanced
  - the trade-based economy collapsed
  - writing disappeared 400 year
  - talk about culture decline

Homer-the blind storyteller
 - Greek oral tradition
  - stories passed on by word of mouth Homer lived at the end of these "Greek Dark Ages"
 - composed stories of the Troy War 750-700 BCE
  - the lliad: last conquest of Mycenaeans the Troy War
  - the odyssey: Odyssey attempt to returned home after Troy War, but being thwarted by Poseidony

Warring City-State
 - polis: fundamental political unit, made up of a city and surrounding countryside
 - monarchy: ruled by single king
 - aristocracy: ruled by small group of noble,  very rich, landowning families
 - oligarchy: wealthy group. dissatisfied with aristocratic rule
                     who seized power (often with military help)
 - tyrant: powerful individual who seized control by appealing to the common people for support