Thursday, April 28, 2016

Notes on at the Crusades

Holy Roman Empire - Age of Faith
more a political power than a spiritual power
over 500 massive Gothic cathedrals are built 1170-1270
Muslisms is a new religion starts around 100 years ago
Muslisms are more serious about their religion

all in Jerusalem:
Dome of Rock (Islam)
Church of the Holy Sepulcher (Christian)
Western Wall (Judaism)

1093 Emperor Alexius Comnenus wrote letter to Pope Urban 2

Holy War
200 years religiously sanctioned
Jerusalem is a Holy Place for Christian
they want to get the Holy Place back from Muslim

Wednesday, April 27, 2016

Note on Germanic Kingdoms United under Charlemagne

it's very dangerous because the law and government is not working
no trading, cities are crab out
people don't social with each other because other people might hurt you
just tell stories don't know how to read and write
Roman: language that are similar (French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian)
only people know how to read are the rich and priest
no school for children to learn
little houses around the walls are for the little army
rich have farmers, warriors... all people that have different skilled to do everything they need to use.
no Empire, no king just little community
first pretty house - lords house (rich)
second pretty house - Church
Benedict: first people who write rules for work

Tuesday, April 26, 2016

The Crusades

    - Age of Faith
    - Holy Roman Empire is the strongest kingdom in Europe

    - late eleventh century, Jerusalem was controlled by the Muslims
    - Islam's 3rd holiest City
    - Holy City to Jews

The "Holy War"
    - Pope Urban 2 put the call for Christians to recapture Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslim Turks
    - Thus began 200 years of religiously sanctioned military campaigns, from 1095 to 1291
    - crusade means "taking of the cross"

Crusades (almost) Entirely Supported Throughout Holy Roman Empire
    - "soldiers of the Church" took vows to take back the Holy Land
    - Pope promised those who died in the endeavor would receive immediate remission for their sins

Germanic Kingdoms United under Charlemagne

Main Idea:
    - many Germanic kingdoms that succeeded the Roman Empire were reunited under Charlemagne's empire
    - Charlemagne spread Christian civilization

Setting the Stage
    - Middle Ages = medieval period
    - AD 476 - AD 1453

This is a new society
  - has roots in
    - classical heritage of Rome
    - beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church
    - customs of various Germanic tribes

5th Century Germanic invaders
  - overrun half of Roman Empire
  - causing:
    - disruption of trade
    - downfall of cities
    - population shifts to rural areas

Effects of Invasion
  - decline
    - tribes could't read Greek or Latin
    - French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian
    - few besides priest were literate

Germanic Kingdoms emerge: AD 400-600
  - warriors' loyalty is to the lord of the manor
    - he provides them food, weapons, treasure
  - result
    - no orderly government for large area
    - small communities rule

even so ... Clovis rules the Franks
    - Clovis rules Gaul, know as Franks
    - 496, battlefield conversion, he and 3000 warriors become Christian
    - 511, Franks are united into one kingdom, Clovis and Church

Spread of Christianity
    - Church + Frankish rulers = rise in Christianity
    - 520, Benedict writes rules for monks
        - vows of poverty
        - chastity
        - obedience
    - sister Scholastica, writes similar rules for nuns
    - operate schools, maintain libraries, copy books

Pope Gregory and Papal Power Play
    - Pope Gregory 1 goes secular
    - Church revenues are used to help the poor, build roads, and raise armies
    - theocracy
    - Christendom extends from Italy to England, from Spain to Germany

Who's Running Europe
    - Clovis rules the Franks in Gaul until his death 511
    - rest of Europe smaller kingdoms
    - descendants include Charles Martel, Charles the Hammer
    - Hammer defeats a Muslim raiding party fromSpain at the Battle of Tour in 732

How do you follow the Hammer
    - Charles Martel's son is Pepin the Short
    - ling by the grace of God
    - Pepin the Short dies in 768
    - 1 son Carolina dies in 771
    - 2 son Charles, Charlemagne
    - six feet four inches of rocking ruling warriors greatness

Monday, April 25, 2016

Christianity in the Pax Romana

Christianity - roots
    - Jesus
    - comes from the Gospels
    - "Gospel" means "good news"

    - Jesus was a Jewish itinerant preacher
    - set himself apart from other "Messiahs"
    - Jesus taught God's personal relationship to each human being

    - Jesus believe there will be "Messiah"
    - Jesus was a threat to Roman rule

Start spreading the news
    - Paul of Tarsus was a Jew who became a follower of Jesus
    - Well-travelled, helped found Churches in many places

    - Jews & Christian monotheistic
                                   refuse to worship Roman gods
    - when things began to go wrong for the Roman Empire, Jews and Christians persecuted by Roman authorities

The appeal of Christianity
  - Because
    - Embrace all people
        - Men AND Women
        - enslaved people
        - the poor
    - gave hope to powerless

Conversion of Constantine (AD 312)
    - Roman emperor has a vision
    - sees an image in the sky of a cross and the words

Edict of Milan in AD 313
    - Christianity becomes a religion which is recognized/approved
    - By 380, becomes empire's official religion

Decline of the Roman Empire
  - Christianity strengthen, Rome weakened
    - Military: too weak to defend huge area
    - Economy: takes too high; widening gap between rich & poor
    - Social: disloyalty, population decrease
    - Political: division  of the empire

the Last Roman emperor was in 476
    - 14-year-old boy named Romulus Augustulus

Friday, April 22, 2016

Feudalism in Europe

Power and Authority:
 - Feudalism, a political and economic system based on land-holding and protective alliances, emerges in Europe.

Setting the Stage:
 - After the Treaty of Verdum, Charlemagne's three feuding grandsons broke up the kingdom even further. Part of this territory also became a battleground as new waves of invaders attacked Europe.

Invaders Attack Western Europe
800-1000, invasions destroyed the Carolingian Empire. Muslim invaders from the south seized Sicily and raided Italy. 846, they sacked Rome Magyar invaders struck from the east.
 - The Vikings Invade from the North
    - Vikings set sail from Scandinavia, a wintry, wooded region in Northern Europe.
    - Vikings were a Germanic people
    - they carried out their raids with terrifying speed.
    - they were not only warriors but also readers, farmers and explorers
 - Magyars and Muslims Attack from the East and South
    - as Viking invasions declined, Europe became the target of new assaults
    - the Magyars, a group of nomadic people, attacked from the east, which is now Hungary
    - Muslims struck from the south

A New Social Order: Feudalism
911, two former enemies faced each other in a peace ceremony. Roll was the head of a Viking army. Rollo and his men had been plundering the rich Seine River valley for years. Charles the Simple was the king of France but held little power.
 - Feudalism Structures Society
    - worst years of the invaders' attacks 850-950
    - the system of governing and landholding, called feudalism
    - the feudal system was based on rights and obligations, in exchange for military protection and other services, a lord, or landowner, granted land called a fief. The person receiving a fief was called a vassal
 - The Feudal Pyramid
    - the structure of feudal society was much like a pyramid.
    - at the peak reigned the king
    - next the most powerful vassals - wealthy landowners
    - serving beneath these vassals  were knight, knight were counted horsemen who pledged to defend their lords' lands in exchange for fiefs
 - Social Classes Are Well Define
    - statues determined a person's prestige and power
    - three group
      - who fought (nobles and knights)
      - who prayed (men and women of the Church)
      - who worked (the peasants)
    - In Europe in the Middle Ages, the vast majority of people were peasants.
    - most peasants were serfs, serfs were people who could not lawfully leave the place where they were born

Manor: The Economic Side of Feudalism
The manor was the land's estate. during the Middle Ages, the manor system was the basic economic arrangement. The Manor system rested on a set of rights and obligations between a lord and his serfs.
 - A Serf-Contained World
    - peasants rarely traveled more than 25 miles from their own manor
    - the manor was largely a self-sufficient community
    -the serfs and peasants raised or produced nearly everything they and their lord needed for daily life
 - The Harshness of Manor Life
    - for the privilege of living on the lord's land, peasants paid a high price after all these payments to the lord, peasant families owned the village priest a tithe, or church tax, a tithe represented one-tenth of their income
    - for most serfs, both men and women, life was work and more work
    - despite the hardships they endured, serfs accepted their lot in life as part of the Church's teaching.

Music Trip

Wednesday, April 20, 2016

Go over the Test + Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms

The test were so hard!!!!!!!!!! I do so bad on it. This is the worse score I have ever get!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! I hope I can get some extra credit. I don't know why I did so bad on it, I didn't open my computer during class I look at the Power Point very carefully but I just don't know how my score get that bad!!  They all get better than I do.
I think I need to look more carefully on the details, even the things that do not seen that important. I wish I can do better next time and also get some extra credit to make my grade better.

Empire Building:
 - Many Germanic kingdoms that succeeded the Roman Empire were reunited under Charlemagne's empire.

Setting The Stage:
 - the gradual decline of the Roman Empire ushered in en era of European history called the Middle Ages, or the medieval period.
 - 500 to 1500
 - a new society slowly emerged
 - root in:
    - the classical heritage of Rome
    - the beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church
    - the customs of various Germanic tribes

Invasion of Western Europe:
Fifth century, Germanic invaders overran the western half of the Roman Empire It cause a series of changes that altered the economy, government and culture
    - Disruption of Trade
    - Downfall of Cities
    - Population Shifts
 - The Decline of Learning
    - the Germanic invaders could not read and write.
    - The development of various languages mirrored the continued breakup of a once-unified empire.

Germanic Kingdoms Emerges:
400 and 600, Germanic kingdoms replaced Roman provinces
 - The Concept of Government Changes
    - along with shifting boundaries, the empire concept of government changed
    - every Germanic chief led a band of warriors who had pledged their loyalty to him
 - Clovis Rules the Franks
    - in the Roman province of Gaul, a Germanic people called the Franks held power. Their leader was Clovis.
    - He bring Christianity to the region.

Germans Adopt Christianity
Politics played a key role in spreading Christianity. the Church, with the help of Franklish rulers, had converted many Germanic peoples.
 - Monasteries, Convents, and Manuscripts
    - to adapt to rural conditions, the Church built religious communities called monasteries
    - 520, Italian monk named Benedict began writing a book describing a strict yet practical set of rules for monasteries
    - Monasteries also became Europe's Best-educated communities.
 - Papal Power Expands Under Gregory
    - 590, Gregory 1, also called Gregory the Great, become pope
    - Under Gregory the papacy also became a secular, or worldly, power involved in politics

An Empire Evolves
After the Roman Empire disclosed, small kingdoms sprang up all over Europe. Franks controlled the largest and strongest of Europe's kingdoms.
 - Charles Martel Emerges
    - 700, an official know as the major doom, or mayor of palace, had become the most powerful person in the Frankish kingdom.
    - The mayor of the palace in 719, Charles Martel held more power than the king
    - defeated Muslim raiders from Spain at the Battle of Tour in 732.
    - Charles Martel's victory at Tours made him a Christian hero
    - he passed his power to his son after his death
    - the pope anointed Pepin "king by the grace of God"
    - Thus began the Carolingian Dynasty, the family that would rule the Franks from 751 to 987.

Charlemagne Becomes Emperor
Pepin the Short died in 768. He left his kingdom to his two sons, Carloman and Charles. After Carloman's death in 771, Charles, who was known as Charlemagne, ruled the kingdom. He stood six feet four inches tall
 - Charlenagne Extends Frankish Rule
    - he built an empire greater than any known since ancient Rome
    - 800, he travel to Rome to crush an unruly mob that had attacked the pope
Charlemagne Leads a Revival
    - strengthened his royal power by limiting the authority of the nobles
Charlemagne's Heirs
    - a year after his death in 814, he crowned his only surviving son, Louis the Pious, as emperor, Louis was devoutly religious man but an ineffective ruler.
    - he left 3 sons, they divided the empire into three kingdoms
    - the lack of strong rulers led to a new system of governing and landholding - feudalism

Monday, April 18, 2016


At first I was wondering where is Mr. Schick and all the other people were arguing about whether we need to find Mr. Schick or the main office. A lot of them said don't because they don't want to take the test or they want to study for the test. Some of them were going out and Kevin said we've been here for 15 minutes so LET'S GO!! I am just studying for the test and don't care about them, but at lease they called the main office and Mr. Schick were finally back. I thought I can't use my phone to check words during the test but it end up we can use it. There is a word I don't know I was thinking should I asked for the meaning but I just guess the meaning because  I thought it's a test I should't do that.

Friday, April 15, 2016

Rome Test Review

what are the four things that the Greeks bring to Rome
religious beliefs
much of their art
military techniques and weaponry

the Latins descendants of Indo-Europeans were the first people settled here.

consuls are elected officials
term of office: one year 
always aristocrats (patricians)

Lucius Tarquinias Superbus was the seventh and final king of Rome


laws were written out (The Law of the Twelve Tables
these laws (on tablets) were posted in public (in 450 BCE) 
tribunes (“tribal leaders”) were elected  

50,000 people were sold into slaves in the third Punic War

bread and circuses: free grain and entertainment

Julius Caesar         (100 - 44 BCE)
a highly successful general
he conquered the huge territory of Gaul
Julius Caesar was stabbed for 23 times

Julius Caesar’s grandnephew - and adopted son - Octavian takes over at the age of 18!
Octavian forces Lepidus to retire
Tiberius exiled himself after the death of his son

Claudius start conquered Britain

Thursday, April 14, 2016

Rome 4

Caesar seizing power
      serves as consul (one year)
      appoints himself governor of Gaul
      Pompey is  jealous, become his rival
            Caesar's armies clash with Pompey's in Greece, Asia, Spain and Egypt

Caesar's reforms
      granted citizenship to people in provinces
      expanded the Senate, adding his friend
      created jobs for poor - public work projects
      increase pay for soldiers
      start colonies where those without land could own property

      the senators saw Caesar's rise in power as a huge threat to their politician viability
      stabbing him 23 times
      senators were not punished even Brutus
      Octavius was named Julius Caesar's sole heir
      end of republic

Aftermath to the murder
      Julius Caesar's grandnephew - and adopted son - Octavius takes over at the age if 18
            Mary Antony - experienced general
            Lepidus - powerful politicians
      Second Triumvirate

A doomed alliance
      Octavian forces  Lepidus to refire
      He and Mark Antony - rivals
      Mark Antony partners up with Cleopatra of Egypt
      Octavian defeats them at the Battle of Actium

Octavian on his own
      unchallenged ruler of Rome
            honorifie "Augustus"
      title "imperator"
            supreme military commander
      EMPIRE, not republic

      27 BC-AD 14 (41 years)
      expand empire
      died of natural course

      AD 14 - AD 37
      excellent general
      after death of his son, exiled himself
      died at age 77

      AD 37 - AD 41
      cruelty, insane tyrant
      assasinate - group of praetorian guards
      try to re-establish the republic

      AD 41 - AD 54
      suffer from many infirmities ruled well - start conquest Britain
      died by poisoning

      54 - 68
      emphasize arts
      wanted to rebuild Rome to be more majestic
      raid temple for money
      not a good ruler

Wednesday, April 13, 2016

Rome 3

a chang in rule
      Tiberius Gracchus recognized the advantages of courting the plebeians
      military generals worked that angle

nobody did that better than Caesar
      Julius Caesar (100-44 BCE)
      a highly successful general
      he conquered the huge territory of Gaul

he could play the game (of politics)
      made common folks happy
      made friends in high places
          Pompey (general that conquered Syria and Palestine)
          Crassus (richest man, one of the richest men in all history)
      these three men formed the First Triumvirate (rule of three men)

crossing the Rubicon

Tuesday, April 12, 2016


economic change, social upheaval
 - by the end of the second century BCE, over million slaves
 - small farmers lost their land to aristocrats
 - slave did the work for the rich
 - big farms called Latifundia

poor plebs (literally)
 - bread and circuses - free grain, entertainment, keep them alive, keep them quiet

Friday, April 8, 2016

Rome 2

"no legal rights"
      - plebs were victims of discriminating decisions in judicial trials
      - no actual laws
      - patricians - own advantage
Pleb refuse to serve in the military until
      - laws were written out (The Law of the Twelve Tables)
      - laws were posted in public
      - tribunes (tribal leaders) were elected

SPQR - Senatus Populusque Romanum
      - designates any degree or decision made by "the Roman Senate and People"

res publica - the people's affairs
      - democracy  (people's assembly and the tribunes)
      - aristocracy (the Senate)
      - plus monarchy (a mistake the Romans did not care to repeat)

Government ancient Roman/USA
      - the US. modeled their new government by ancient Romans
      - three branches of government
        - executive
        - legislative
        - judicial

That's a Roman legion, clear as day
      - 500 soldiers, not in it for pay (not yet)
      - group of eighty's a century
      - on horseback is the cavalry
      - shield, sword, dragger, and armor and tunic

The Punic Wars (264-146 BCE)
      - Rome vs. Carthage
      - three wars

First Punic War (264-241 BCE)
      - naval loattles for control of the strategically located island of S

Second Punic War (218-201 BCE)
      - 29 years Carthaginian general Hannibal almost does the impossible: taking Rome
      - attacks Rome from the NORTH

Third Punic War - final (149-146 BCE)
      - Rome remove the threat of Carthage
      - Carthage burned for 17 days
      - 50,000 people were sold into slavery

Wednesday, April 6, 2016


who settled Rome?
 - Etruscans: came from north-central part of the peninsula
                     metalworkers, artists, architects
 - Greeks: had many colonies around Mediterranean Sea
                Romans borrows idea:
                    religious belief
                    military techniques and weaponry

First settled
      descendants of Indo-Europeans
      settled banks of the Tiber
      reade ships
      commercial port
      built on seven hills

Tarquin's kinda proud, but he got a little loud
      Lucius Tarquinias Superbus
      seventh and final king of Rome
      known as Tarquin the Proud
      true tyrant

Rule of king replaced by rule of two consuls
      consuls are elected officials
      term: one year
      always aristocrats (patricians)
      traded from a famous ancestor or pater ("father")

challenge "regular folks"
      fifty century BCE, patricians dominance challenged
                                    by the pleb ("people")
        - plebs serve in army
          not hold office
        - threatened with debt slavery
        - no legal rights

Tuesday, April 5, 2016

our project

Patricians were the people who ruled Rome.These rich landowners ran the Senate and held the powerful government jobs, they handled Rome’s finances and directed its wars.
Despite some gains for the Plebeians, many people became very angry and frustrates about this situation.Rome had few privileged citizens compared with the many Romans who farmed small plots of land.In the late 100’s B.C.E. however these farmers were sinking into poverty and debt.Many of them had been unable to farm there land because they were off fighting Rome’s wars, this meant that they made no money.Others had suffered damage to their farms during Hannibal’s invasion of Italy, remember he sacked the country side as he moved throughout Italy.Moreover, small farmers could not compete with wealthy Romans who were buying up land to create Latifundia.Latifundia – were large farming estates, basically gigantic farms.These rich landowners used a new source of labor, the thousands of prisoners brought to Italy due to the many Roman wars.By using these enslaved people to tend their crops, wealthy Romans could force owners of small farms out of business.Faced with debts they could not pay off, many farmers sold their land and headed to the cities, desperate for work.However, jobs were hard to find, because slaves did most of the work. If free men were lucky enough to be hired, they earned low wages.These conditions created widespread anger all across Rome. Roman politicians were worried about riots breaking out, but they quickly turned the situation to their advantage.
To win the votes of the poor. They began providing cheap food and entertainment, this policy was known as “Bread and Circuses” and helped dishonest rulers come to power.  

Monday, April 4, 2016

1st day after Easter

We were having a hard time doing the project during Easter. Ivy's mum was here so she don't have a lot of time to communicate with me and Vicky. At first we decided to talk about it on Monday and Ivy said she have time but Vicky and I wait for her for 2 days and finally she reply to us. I think everyone will be at lease a little bit upset when you have to wait for someone for 2 days. Ivy said she wanted to do the poor so I did the rich. We didn't really know what to do for the video but I think we should just summarized the information on paper (more pictures). We recorded the paper and our explanation about it and give the videos to Vicky on Thursday for her to put it together. Because Ivy can only did the work at night so I have to wait for her and I sleep really early...
But anyway, we finished the project!!